JASA 22 June Human fertility remains high in many countries because cultural values influence parents to procreate many children. From Biblical cultures in antiquity down to the present, religious views are integrated with various cultural factors in encouraging human reproduction rates although the New Testament does not seem to be explicit in suggesting family size or encouraging human reproduction. Among a range of cultural factors influencing population are such values as virility, prestige, security and others held by parents in a cultural milieu.
These factors are the behavioral and biological factors that influence fertility directly. Cultural, psychological, economic, social, health, and environ- Page 93 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Population Dynamics of Kenya.
The National Academies Press. Bongaarts and Potter quantified the effects of six of the nine proximate determinants of fertility that were shown to have the greatest effect on fertility in 41 populations: They summarized the effect of each determinant on fertility in an index, which generally ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 having the greatest inhibiting effect on fertility and I having the least inhibiting effect i.
Each index not equal to 1 reduces the total fecundity rate TFwhich is the level of fertility expected in the absence of any of the nine proximate determinants outlined above.
Of course, no one knows what TF really is, but Bongaarts and Potter estimated that it ranges from 13 to 17, with an average of approximately 15, Below is a description of each of the proximate determinants used in this analysis and how they affect fertility.
The computational procedures used to estimate each index are described in the appendix to this chapter. Percentage of Women in Sexual Union It is assumed that the number of women of reproductive age married or living with someone determines the proportion of women in a society exposed to the risk of becoming pregnant.
The greater the number of women exposed, the higher is the resulting fertility. In sub-Saharan Africa, entry into union 1 has generally occurred at an early age, and although union dissolution is frequent in many regions, remarriage occurs rapidly Cochrane and Farid, Kenya has been no exception to this general pattern.
Table shows the median age at first union for women 20 to 49 years. In — the median age at first union at the national level was At the province level, Coast Province had the lowest age at first union, As expected, Nairobi had the highest age at first union, Results from the KDHS show that age at first marriage has risen across all provinces, ranging from an increase of 0.
At the national level, age at 1 In this report, the terms marriage and union are used interchangeably. Because entry into marriage may be a process not just a single event, and because a woman may live with a man without being formally married, this analysis looks at the effect of the proportions of women in sexual union, rather than marriage per se, on fertility.
Page 94 Share Cite Suggested Citation:There are seven proximate determinants of natural fertility, four of which affect the inter-birth interval: This can be attributed to the influence of religion and the values it imposes on culture even in individuals who don't practice any religion.
To add on, the society they live in encourages young marriages and values large families. high fertility for the survival of the community does not imply that most persons had a conscious awareness of the relationship.
Rather the desire for high levels of childbearing was woven into the cultural fabric and the social institutions of traditional societies (Coale ). FERTILITY TRANSITION: ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL DETERMINANTS To understand the amazing decline in fertility—the average number of births per.
Read chapter 3 The Approximate Determinants of Fertility: This overview includes chapters on child mortality, adult mortality, fertility, proximate determ. There are seven proximate determinants of natural fertility, four of which affect the inter-birth interval: This can be attributed to the influence of religion and the values it imposes on culture even in individuals who don't practice any religion. To add on, the society they live in encourages young marriages and values large families. Bongaarts and Potter () quantified the effects of six of the nine proximate determinants of fertility that were shown to have the greatest effect on fertility in 41 populations: percentage of women in sexual union, postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea (taken together), contraceptive use, abortion, and pathological sterility.
The purpose of the dissertation is: 1) to identify the social and cultural variables which influence fertility in India; 2) to determine the direction of their relationship to fertility; and 3) to explain the influence of these variables on fertility. Cultural Factors Affecting Human Fertility* GEORGE J.
JENNINGS Department of Anthropology Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois From: JASA 22 (June ): *This paper is a modified version of one presented in a panel discussion on "Problems Associated With Increasing World Population" at the fall meeting of the Chicago Section of the American Scientific Affiliation held on December 6, Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically.
Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since , it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal.