Whereas inemployed mothers were more likely to be from single-parent families, this difference has now vanished. For single mothers who have been married, the present employment rates are slightly higher than those of currently married mothers, but for never-married mothers, employment rates are notably lower than for either of the others. These statistics document a major social change in the United States.
Despite the growth of industry, urban centers and immigration, America in the late 19th century was still predominantly rural. Seven out of ten people in the United States lived in small towns with populations under or on farms in In Indiana, the census reported a population of almost 2 million residents, about 55 per square mile, 1, men andwoman.
About three out of four people lived in rural areas. Although much of the study done on woman's roles during this period looks at the roles of the emerging urban middle class or those of immigrant women, the changes that occurred affected rural women, too.
The "Cult of Domesticity, " first named and identified in the early part of the century, was solidly entrenched by late nineteenth century, especially in rural environments.
Women's God-given role, it stated, was as wife and mother, keeper of the household, guardian of the moral purity of all who lived therein. The Victorian home was to be a haven of comfort and quiet, sheltered from the harsh realities of the working world.
Housework took on a scientific quality, efficiency being the watchword.
Children were to be cherished and nurtured. Morality was protected through the promulgation of Protestant beliefs and social protest against alcohol, poverty and the decay of urban living.
Pulling against these traditions was the sense of urgency, movement and progress so evident in the geographical, industrial, technological and political changes affecting the country.
Women's roles were meant to steady all this uncertainty, but women could not help but see opportunities for themselves in this growth. Jobs opened up in factories, retail establishments and offices, giving single women new options. Education became mandatory for both genders in many states.
Women sought higher education, too, first in all female institutions and then in co-ed environments. The push for women's rights, with suffrage in the forefront, also gathered momentum.
Their lives, however, were tied to house and children, endlessly unacknowledged work, little opportunity for outside contact or variety of experience, and little relief from everyday triviality.
The extent to which farm women felt any fulfillment or larger meaning may indeed have been tied to how well they could balance the tensions between the expectations of the culture and the day-to-day, unrelenting tasks of housekeeping, child rearing and farm life.
Keeping the Home " A really good housekeeper is almost always unhappy. While she does so much for the comfort of others, she nearly ruins her own health and life.
It is because she cannot be easy and comfortable when there is the least disorder or dirt to be seen. Yes, it is hard. But, sisters, it is work that belongs to us.
It is work that, if not done by us, will never be done at all.
For man cannot do it - as far as the family is concerned For as a rule, and it is a rule that has few exceptions, woman creates the atmosphere of the home. Dorr, The Household, Vol.
V, Women's popular literature of the period is full of advice about and encouragement for proper housekeeping. Implicit in this advice is the notion that by keeping a clean, neat, pious home and filling it with warmth and inviting smells, women are achieving their highest calling.
The movement to elevate the status of housework found an early voice in the writings of Catherine Beecher. Beecher devoted much effort to glorifying housekeepingand attempting to convince her readers that their daily duties, however tedious or distressing, constituted important works assigned to them by Nature and God.
She went so far as to suggest a explicit weekly schedules and rational designs for the kitchen and cooking areas. Her many manuals and cookbooks offered not only a philosophy for housekeeping, but practical methods for accomplishing those philosophical ends.
A review of the popular literature of the time provides unique insights into the expectations for women's lives and the realities of their existence.
In his book, So Sweet to Labor, author Norton Juster looked at the advice given and the responses received in a few publications of the time. Women wrote letters that described the endless, repetitive work undertaken week by week. Not that it was all woe - many reported about the joys of fulfilling their womanly role as keeper of the house, or wrote to chastise their complaining sisters.
The weekly schedule of "drudge" likely included laundry on Monday, ironing and mending on Tuesday, baking on Wednesday and Saturday, daily tidying of kitchen and parlor, and thorough cleaning on Thursday and again on Saturday.
This was in addition to childcare, three meals a day, hauling water and keeping the fire burning in the stove, a chore that in itself took at least one hour each day.
Then there was making the family garments and seasonal preserving of fruits, vegetables and meat. Often, too, the scope of work extended to the farm itself. Women had charge of the farm garden, livestock and poultry and work related to "civilizing" the farm.research thesis woman mothering role M.S., M.A.
Almost 1/4 of women in the U You can read the entire Educating research thesis woman mothering role the Research thesis woman mothering role However, these two findings are contrary to previous research, and theory warrants caution and further examination.
The scarlet letter essay introduction.
Mothering roles and motherhood itself remains primarily a woman’s role within contemporary society. When women enter the workforce they are still expected to fulfil their. Mothering roles and motherhood itself remains primarily a woman’s role within contemporary society.
When women enter the workforce . Mothering is one of the most challenging, rewarding, uplifting, and frustrating experiences of a woman’s life. In this paper, I present literature reviews of positive psychology, mothering, and job crafting followed by a coaching strategy that incorporates this research to create a proactive, growth-oriented opportunity for women to feel more confident and happier in their parenting role.
The role of religion in helping solve the gender inequality in the US, Europe, and the rest of the world is another great topic to look into. The key thing researching . Research in Higher Education, 27, – doi: /BF [Google Scholar]), a reduction of martial satisfaction among full-time student mothers depended on changes in the woman’s role in the family and her husband’s response to these changes.