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Medicalization Pregnancy and childbirth have become increasingly medicalized in most parts of the world since the early twentieth century. That is, they are increasingly processes that—in fact and as a social ideal—are managed and overseen by medical professionals, typically involve a high degree of technological medical intervention and contact with clinics and hospitals, and are assessed by medical experts who are the authorities on their progress.
The concept of medicalization is helpful in making clear how this sort of insertion into a medical context is not or not simply a response to fixed biological facts, but rather a contingent social and institutional process.
Death, depression, and short attention span are other examples of processes or conditions that have undergone intense medicalization.
In general, medicalization comes with both benefits and burdens, and the medicalization of pregnancy and birth is no exception. Increasingly few obstetricians would claim that intense medicalization straightforwardly promotes good birth outcomes for mothers and infants; rather, almost all would acknowledge that while medical interventions have lessened many risks e.
Partly because of these mixed effects of increased medicalization, opposing narratives of pregnancy and birth continue to grow in visibility and support.
These narratives may aim to de-medicalize the notion of normalcy in pregnancy and birth, or centralize the knowledge and competence of midwifery e. North American births typically involve a variety of technological interventions, regularly including labor-inducing drugs, spinal epidurals, fetal monitoring, and—in roughly one third of births—surgical delivery.
Prior to birth, most pregnancies will involve medical interventions such as genetic testing, ultrasound screening, prescriptions to control various symptoms and risks, and—with increasing frequency—technological assistance for conception.
Importantly, however, the rate and intensity with which such interventions are offered or imposed is far from uniform.
Dorothy Roberts highlights the striking disparity of benefits enjoyed as a result of medicalization: Some dimensions of the medicalization of pregnancy do not directly involve medical interventions.
Both inside and outside the clinic, pregnancy is treated as a medical event requiring intense risk management, monitoring, and appeals to expert medical knowledge: Recently, there has been a vigorous mandate to involve medical professionals in helping women regulate their bodies in accordance with medical standards for minimizing reproductive risk even prior to conception.
A majority of women embrace at least some aspects of medicalization; many take it as part of responsible motherhood to maximize the expert management of their pregnancies and to follow risk-minimization advice carefully Seigel The general trend towards medicalizing pregnancy and birth has had several ethically noteworthy effects Davis-FloydDudenMitchellMorganSherwin First, medicalization has encouraged us to imagine pregnancy and birth as inherently high-risk, pathological processes that it is irresponsible to undertake without large amounts of expert help and surveillance.
Second, when medical professionals become the primary managers of reproduction, pregnant women's epistemic privilege is undermined and they are arguably reduced to playing passive roles in their own pregnancies and births e.
Third, some have argued that medicalization has rendered pregnancy in general, and labor and birth in particular, more alienating and stressful for women, burdening them with constant and complicated responsibilities for elaborate risk management and bodily and behavioral surveillance for review see, e.
More broadly, this account of pregnancy and birth involves comparable pressures on pregnant women to conform to rigid standards of attitudes and behaviours, and, like the medicalized account, is in danger of de-politicizing and essentializing the experience and management of pregnant women BeckettMalacrida and Boulton Frank Chervenak and Laurence McCullough contrast medicalization, not with an absence of technological interventions, but with the co-option of these technological interventions by the non-medical sphere of commodification.
They argue that such non-medical, social imaging is ethically unacceptable, as it raises concerns about informed consent, psychosocial risks to women, false senses of security in the health of the baby, and economic conflicts of interest.
They conclude that medical professionals ought to retain control and authority over the use and interpretation of fetal imaging technology. Their argument could easily be extended to other technologies used in obstetrics.The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence.
Domestic violence – pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship, such as marriage, dating, family, or caninariojana.com is also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV).
Jun 05, · Also, teenage pregnancy has declined in the U.S., but we are still the nation with the highest count of teen pregnancies. If a little more information went out to the younger generations maybe there would be a steady decline in teenage pregnancies.
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy. It is the removal of the foetus before it is viable. Free Sample Research Paper on Abortion. By Lauren Bradshaw. October 27, Sample Research Papers.
Introduction This means that the hormones are tuned to a program where they cannot sustain a full pregnancy to term. The body gets used to. Teenage pregnancy is a major concern in today’s society; there are many ways to prevent teenage pregnancy, many people to get advice from, and many decisions a teenage parent must make.
The statistics tell that the U.S. has the highest rate of teen pregnancy and births. Are you ready to print an Outline? Give Your Feedback. A Statement of Purpose is a sentence that you write, which states, in some detail, what you want to learn about in your research project.
"I want to learn about teen pregnancy.". full-sentence outline format Name: (include in all outlines) Specific Purpose: After listening to my speech, my audience will know or understand (select know or understand, not .