Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylendingoccupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil".
It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F. It is a slightly edited version of the chapter written jointly by Jim Simkin and myself for the third edition of Current Psychotherapies. The version was a complete rewriting of a version Jim did by himself for the second edition of Current Psychotherapies.
The revisions I made in the version were minor and were made after Jim's death. Overview Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological-existential therapy founded by Frederick Fritz and Laura Perls in the s.
It teaches therapists and patients the phenomenological method of awareness, in which perceiving, feeling, and acting are distinguished from interpreting and reshuffling preexisting attitudes. Explanations and interpretations are considered less reliable than what is directly perceived and felt.
Patients and therapists in Gestalt therapy dialogue, that is, communicate their phenomenological perspectives. Differences in perspectives become the focus of experimentation and continued dialogue.
The goal is for clients to become aware of what they are doing, how they are doing it, and how they can change themselves, and at the same time, to learn to accept and value themselves. Gestalt therapy focuses more on process what is happening than content what is being discussed.
The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should be. Basic Concepts The Phenomenological Perspective Phenomenology is a discipline that helps people stand aside from their usual way of thinking so that they can tell the difference between what is actually being perceived and felt in the current situation and what is residue from the past Idhe, A Gestalt exploration respects, uses and clarifies immediate, "naive" perception "undebauched by learning" Wertheimer,p.
Gestalt therapy treats what is "subjectively" felt in the present, as well as what is "objectively" observed, as real and important data. This contrasts with approaches that treat what the patient experiences as "mere appearances" and uses interpretation to find "real meaning.
In Gestalt therapy insight is clear understanding of the structure of the situation being studied. Awareness without systematic exploration is not ordinarily sufficient to develop insight. Therefore, Gestalt therapy uses focused awareness and experimentation to achieve insight. How one becomes aware is crucial to any phenomenological investigation.
The phenomenologist studies not only personal awareness but also the awareness process itself. The patient is to learn how to become aware of awareness. How the therapist and the patient experience their relationship is of special concern in Gestalt therapy Yontef, The Field Theory Perspective The scientific world view that underlies the Gestalt phenomenological perspective is field theory.
Field theory is a method of exploring that describes the whole field of which the event is currently a part rather than analyzing the event in terms of a class to which it belongs by its "nature" e. The field is a whole in which the parts are in immediate relationship and responsive to each other and no part is uninfluenced by what goes on elsewhere in the field.
The field replaces the notion of discrete, isolated particles. The person in his or her life space constitutes a field.
In field theory no action is at a distance; that is, what has effect must touch that which is affected in time and space. Gestalt therapists work in the here and now and are sensitive to how the here and now includes residues of the past, such as body posture, habits, and beliefs.
The phenomenological field is defined by the observer and is meaningful only when one knows the frame of reference of the observer. The observer is necessary because what one sees is somewhat a function of how and when one looks. Field approaches are descriptive rather than speculative, interpretive, or classificatory.
The emphasis is on observing, describing, and explicating the exact structure of whatever is being studied.
In Gestalt therapy, data unavailable to direct observation by the therapist are studied by phenomenological focusing, experimenting, reporting of participants, and dialogue Yontef, The Existential Perspective Existentialism is based on the phenomenological method. Existential phenomenologists focus on people's existence, relations with each other, joys and suffering, etc.
Most people operate in an unstated context of conventional thought that obscures or avoids acknowledging how the world is. This is especially true of one's relations in the world and one's choices.
Self-deception is the basis of inauthenticity: Gestalt therapy provides a way of being authentic and meaningfully responsible for oneself.
The existential view holds that people are endlessly remaking or discovering themselves. There is no essence of human nature to be discovered "once and for all.
Dialogue The relationship between the therapist and the client is the most important aspect of psychotherapy.May 09, · One of the challenges of a diverse society is discrimination. have faced discrimination in American Please help I really need help with this ASAP?Status: Open.
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doi: / This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over articles are included below).
Psychosomatic Medicine, founded in , is the official organ of the American Psychosomatic Society. It publishes experimental and clinical studies dealing with various aspects of the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors and bodily processes in humans and animals.
It is an international, interdisciplinary journal devoted to experimental and clinical investigation. Introduction to Sociology. movements play a more prominent role in American politics than they social issue that puts people at risk.