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Varna Hinduism Varna literally means type, order, colour or class   and was a framework for grouping people into classes, first used in Vedic Indian society. It is referred to frequently in the ancient Indian texts.
There are four varnas but thousands of jatis. This view has been disputed by other scholars, who believe it to be a secular social phenomenon driven by the necessities of economics, politics, and sometimes also geography.
Caste The term caste is not originally an Indian word, though it is now widely used, both in English and in Indian languages. According to the Oxford English Dictionaryit is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race, lineage, breed" and, originally, "'pure or unmixed stock or breed ".
Ghurye wrote in that, despite much study by many people, we do not possess a real general definition of caste.
It appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use of the term.
His model definition for caste included the following six characteristics,  Segmentation of society into groups whose membership was determined by birth  A hierarchical system wherein generally the Brahmins were at the head of the hierarchy, but this hierarchy was disputed in some cases.
In various linguistic areas, hundreds of castes had a gradation generally acknowledged by everyone  Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse, with minute rules on the kind of food and drink that upper castes could accept from lower castes.
There was a great diversity in these rules, and lower castes generally accepted food from upper castes  Segregation, where individual castes lived together, the dominant caste living in the center and other castes living on the periphery.
This characteristic of caste was missing from large parts of India, stated Ghurye, and in these regions all four castes Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras did agriculture labour or became warriors in large numbers  Endogamyrestrictions on marrying a person outside caste, but in some situations hypergamy allowed.
Risley and for fitting his definition to then prevalent colonial orientalist perspectives on caste. For example, for some early European documenters it was thought to correspond with the endogamous varnas referred to in ancient Indian scripts, and its meaning corresponds in the sense of estates.
To later Europeans of the Raj era it was endogamous jatis, rather than varnas, that represented caste, such as the jatis that colonial administrators classified by occupation in the early 20th century.
The name stuck and became the usual word for the Hindu social group. In attempting to account for the remarkable proliferation of castes in 18th- and 19th-century India, authorities credulously accepted the traditional view that by a process of intermarriage and subdivision the 3, or more castes of modern India had evolved from the four primitive classes, and the term 'caste' was applied indiscriminately to both varna or class, and jati or caste proper.
This is a false terminology; castes rise and fall in the social scale, and old castes die out and new ones are formed, but the four great classes are stable. There are never more or less than four and for over 2, years their order of precedence has not altered.
Varna represents a closed collection of social orders whereas jati is entirely open-ended, thought of as a "natural kind whose members share a common substance. Thus, "Caste" is not an accurate representation of jati in English.
Better terms would be ethnicity, ethnic identity and ethnic group. Flexibility Sociologist Anne Waldrop observes that while outsiders view the term caste as a static phenomenon of stereotypical tradition-bound India, empirical facts suggest caste has been a radically changing feature.
The term means different things to different Indians. In the context of politically active modern India, where job and school quotas are reserved for affirmative action based on castes, the term has become a sensitive and controversial subject.
Srinivas and Damle have debated the question of rigidity in caste and believe that there is considerable flexibility and mobility in the caste hierarchies. Perspectives There are at least two perspectives for the origins of the caste system in ancient and medieval India, which focus on either ideological factors or on socio-economic factors.
The first school focuses on the ideological factors which are claimed to drive the caste system and holds that caste is rooted in the four varnas. This perspective was particularly common among scholars of the British colonial era and was articulated by Dumont, who concluded that the system was ideologically perfected several thousand years ago and has remained the primary social reality ever since.
This school justifies its theory primarily by citing the ancient law book Manusmriti and disregards economic, political or historical evidence. It believes caste to be rooted in the economic, political and material history of India. Hartcentral aspects of the later Indian caste system may originate from the ritual kingship system prior to the arrival of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in India.
The system is seen in the South Indian Tamil literature from the Sangam perioddated to the third to sixth centuries CE. This theory discards the Indo-Aryan varna model as the basis of caste, and is centred on the ritual power of the king, who was "supported by a group of ritual and magical specialists of low social status," with their ritual occupations being considered 'polluted'.
According to Hart, it may be this model that provided the concerns with "pollution" of the members of low status groups. The Hart model for caste origin, writes Samuel, envisions "the ancient Indian society consisting of a majority without internal caste divisions and a minority consisting of a number of small occupationally polluted groups".
The first three groups, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishya have parallels with other Indo-European societies, while the addition of the Shudras is probably a Brahmanical invention from northern India.
The Purusha Sukta verse is now generally considered to have been inserted at a later date into the Rigveda, probably as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, professors of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", and "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both then and later, a social ideal rather than a social reality".The different religious communities of India include major groups, such as the Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and the Jains, as well as minor religious faiths, such as Jews and Zoiroastrians.
QUESTION India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic which gives equal treatment and tolerance of all religions, which enshrines the right to practice, preach and propagate any religion and which says right to freedom of religion is a fundamental right.
The Religions of India contains, in a single volume, a comprehensive account of every major faith practised in the country today—Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and the Bahai faith.
existence of deep structural differences between religions in their development of bioethics. In the systematic analysis of the nature of bioethics in Hinduism, Buddhism or Islam, (b) applied analysis, different religions (one of them is the religion on which they have focused in the Research Projects).
So far we’ve learned about Hinduism and Buddhism in India two of the most common religions found in India. One of the many things about learning about different culture is the religion that is come with.
Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is a secular state with no state caninariojana.com Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and caninariojana.comhout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture..
Religious diversity and religious.